Evaluation of Pest-Control Strategies
In an attempt to spot the circumstances under which chemical pesticides could be required in future pest management, the committee received input from experts during the information-gathering phase of its study. Perspectives were received within the sort of invited presentations, written input, and informal responses from university and industrial scientists, pest-management practitioners, policy analysts, and people expertly in current practices and impacts of pesticide use. On the idea of input from workshops and other information sources, the committee concluded that the range of the US agricultural enterprise and other sectors of pesticide use makes generalizing virtually impossible.

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Pesticides are utilized in a multiplicity of settings—agricultural crop and livestock production, silviculture, homes and lawns, schools, golf courses, rights of way, wildlands, et al. . Pest managers use an array of chemical pesticides, cultural practices, biological control, and genetically modified organisms to regulate a broad spectrum of pest species. Moreover, even during a single production system, the utility of chemical pesticides can vary.

Although generalizing is difficult, experts who provided input to the committee agreed that pest-management practices can improve altogether managed ecosystems. The intent here is to supply some insights on circumstances during which pesticides are in use and to illuminate the variation in pest-management practices in some managed and natural ecosystems.

PESTICIDE USE IN MANAGED AND NATURAL ECOSYSTEMS
For purposes of classification, the committee used both biological and cultural criteria to acknowledge six major classes of agroecosystems. within the context of agronomic crop production, biological constraints differ between perennial systems—which include silviculture, orchards and vineyards, forages and turf—and annual systems—which include row crops, vegetables, and cereals. Stored-products systems have unique attributes; climate and temperature are factors for all of the systems but manifest themselves in unique ways therein stored-products systems are often indoors and spatially constrained. Animal-production systems (including those for swine, ruminants, poultry, such nonfood animals as horses and llamas, and aquaculture) present a special set of biological constraints.

Urban pest-management systems—indoors for vermin, structural pests, and companion animals; and outdoors for lawn, garden, golf courses, ornamentals, rights of way, and nuisance insects—present cultural and biological constraints that differentiate the method of management from that in other systems. Finally, wildland systems (including rangelands, forests, conservation holdings, and aquatic systems) often present species-conservation priorities that make nontarget effects important in pest-management strategies.

Perennial Cropping Systems
The longevity of perennial crop plants (particularly trees) creates a particular challenge therein both time and vegetational structure promote biological diversity (Lawton and Gaston 1989). Thus, management decisions in these systems targeted at particular pests often have community-level implications. for instance, the use of conventional pesticides for the control of major pests can preclude the adoption of nonchemical alternative methods of controlling other pests (Brunner 1994); the use of conventional pesticides remains heavy in these agroecosystems.

In 1995, over 90% of acres on which the five most generally grown fruit crops (grapes, oranges, apples, grapefruits, and peaches) were grown were treated with a minimum of one pesticide, and most of the acres received herbicide, fungicide, and insecticide treatment (Economic Research Service 1995).

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